From the middle of 1970's growth of Islamic fundamentalism began in Kashmir. No single reason can be given for this. Several factors, such as the geo-political situation of the valley, Sheikh Abdullah's personal political ambition, the problematic accession to India with its aftermath and the inability of the Indian government to integrate the state with the rest of the country, combined to lead to such a situation. Translated into the religious idiom, the fundamentalists aimed to establish the "Nizam-i-Mustafa" or the ideal state of Islam, at the point of the gun, if needed. The beginning of its manifestation was the communal riots in the year 1986 at Anantnag, near Srinagar. The entire socio-political scenario thereafter assumed a ferocious look. Hundreds of Kashmiri Muslim youth trained in the use of sophisticated weapons and guerrilla warfare infiltrated the valley and started to indulge in bomb and grenade attacks on the security forces and government buildings. The years 1988 and 1989 were worse, when over five thousand Kashmiri Muslim youth received arms training in Pakistan. Endless processions of anti-India demonstrators were taken out. Simultaneously there were bomb blasts, grenade attacks and AK-47 rifle encounters. There was torching of sensitive targets such as the bridges, government offices, schools building and communication centres. By the year 1989, the militancy assumed a communal complexion. The Kashmiri Pandits, who had been nonpartisan, were dubbed as Indian agents and informers and as such made special targets. Prominent Pandits, such as Tikalal Tapiloo , a lawyer and Nilkanth Ganjoo, a retired Sessions Judge, were gunned down in broad daylight in full public view, by a militant organization. This was followed by the brutal killing of several Kashmiri Pandits, rape and abduction of their womenfolk and loot and arson of their properties. Important Hindu shrines were burnt down at some places in the city while small temples were desecrated, especially in the villages. The situation was grim throughout the valley. No Kashmiri Pandit dared to come out of his house. Government Offices, educational institutions and banks would remain closed either in response to bandh calls given by the militants or due to the curfew imposed by the government. By the year end normal life in Kashmir had come to a standstill. By the beginning of January 1990 the situation had deteriorated rapidly and become extremely serious, in the valley. The terror and turmoil reached its climax in the events that took place on 21st January 1990. Late in the evening on this day the loudspeakers fitted in all the mosques in Srinagar city suddenly burst forth with the cries of 'Allah-0-Akbar'. Pre-recorded cassettes, with cries of Jihad and threatening slogans against the non-believers were simultaneously played from hundreds of loudspeakers, all over the valley. At the same time almost the entire Muslim population, especially in the downtown areas of the city, came out on the streets shouting in unison with the 93 loudspeakers. Threatenings were given and deadlines were set for them to either convert, flee or face extinction (Raliv, Chaliv, Galiv). The resultant atmosphere of terror and fear of-imminent death lead to the mass exodus of the Kashmiri Pandit community at the earliest opportunity. Often, in the beginning, those fleeing in the broad daylight were killed and their belongings looted. As a result the flight was undertaken in secrecy, lest they were betrayed, people left furtively without informing their neighbours, friends or even relatives. They left behind their property, movable and immovable, their lands and · orchards, business establishments, government and private services, and made a beeline to Jammu. By the middle of 1990 around three lakh Kashmiri Pandits had fled the valley.